Common Data Types

Common Data Types

Python has several built-in data types to represent different kinds of data. The main built-in types are:

Finally, note that although Python 2.x had both an int and long type, Python 3 combines the behavior of these two into a single int type.

You can determine the data type of any object using the type() function.

n1 = 4 #Integer literal
n2 = 1j #Complex literal
n3 = 2.32 #float literal
string_literal = "Nirmal" #string literal
true_literal = True #boolean literal
false_literal = False #boolean literal
value = None #None type literal

print(type(n1)) #<class 'int'>  
print(type(n2)) #<class 'float'>   
print(type(string_literal)) #<class 'str'>
print(type(true_literal)) #<class 'bool'>
print(type(false_literal)) #<class 'bool'>
print(type(value)) #<class 'NoneType'>

Exploring all datatypes

  1. Int type

    The most basic numerical type is the integer. Any number without a decimal point is an integer.

     a, b = 1,2 
     print(type(a)) # <class 'int'>
     print(a+b)# 3
     print(a-b)# -1
  2. Float type

    The float type in Python represents floating point numbers, which are numbers with decimal points. Floats are implemented as 64-bit double precision values. Python floats have a large range, from around 1e-308 to 1e308.

     a = 1.5 
     b = 2.5
     num3 = 1e6  # 1 million
     print(type(a))# <class 'float'>
     print(a + b) # Output =  4.0
     print(a - b)  # Output  = -1.0
     print(a * b)# Output =  3.75
     print(a / b)# Output =  0.6

    Some math modules to manipulate float :

     from math import floor, ceil
     floor(1.8) # 1 
     ceil(1.2) # 2
     round(1.75) # 2
  3. Complex type

    Complex numbers are numbers with real and imaginary parts.

     complex_num = 1 + 2j
     print(complex_num.real, complex_num.imag) # Output = 1, 2
     #Some operations 
     a = 1 + 2j
     b = 3 + 4j
     print(a + b)  # (4+6j)
     print(a - b)# (-2-2j)
  4. Booleans type

    The Boolean type is a simple type with two possible values: True and False, and is returned by comparison operators.

     a, b = 4, 5 
     result = (a < b)
     print(result) #True

    Booleans can also be constructed using the bool() object constructor.

    For example, any numeric type is False if equal to zero, and True otherwise.

     print(bool(2012)) #True
     print(bool(1)) # True
     print(bool(0))# False

    Similarly, The Boolean conversion of None is always False and for strings, bool(s) is False for empty strings and True otherwise

     print(bool(None)) #False(Always False for None)
     print(bool(""))# For empty string it is False
     print(bool("Nirmal")) #True
  5. String Type

    • Strings are sequences of characters, represented using either single or double quotes.

        name = "nirmalpandey"#assigning string to variable name
        print(name) # output = nirmalpandey
    • Strings are immutable, meaning once created they cannot be changed, only replaced with a new string.

        message = "Bitsnotion"
        message[0] = 'b' 
        print(message) # This will raise a TypeError
  6. None Type

    None is returned when a function does not explicitly return a value.

     x = None
     if x is None:
         print("Empty value")
     #Output : Empty value