Django Models

Django Models

Django models are a fundamental component of Django web applications, offering a simplified and pythonic way to define the structure of your data. Acting as Python classes, Django models enable seamless interactions with the underlying database. With models, developers can work with data more intuitively, abstracting away the complexities of SQL queries and database management.

  • Each model is a Python class that subclasses django.db.models.Model.

  • Each attribute of the model represents a database field.

Example :

from django.db import models

class Post(models.Model):
    title = models.CharField(max_length=200)
    description = models.TextField()

    def __str__(self):
        return self.title

In this example, the "Post" model defines fields for title, description, and image. The CharField represents a character field with a maximum length of 200 characters, while the TextField represents a longer text field. The __str__ method returns the title of the post for better readability.

Corresponding schema

Field NameData TypeConstraints
idAutoField (Primary Key)Automatically generated and unique
titleCharFieldMaximum length: 200

Databases in Django

In Django, the default database is set up to use SQLite as the database engine.

  • In your project's "" file, the default database configuration is typically set up like this:

      DATABASES = {
          'default': {
              'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.sqlite3',   # SQLite database engine
              'NAME': BASE_DIR / 'db.sqlite3',          # Database file path

Explanation of the configuration:

  1. ENGINE: This specifies the database engine to be used, which is set to 'django.db.backends.sqlite3' for SQLite.

  2. NAME: This indicates the file path where the SQLite database file will be created and stored.

  3. By default, it is set to 'db.sqlite3', and it is placed in the project's base directory (BASE_DIR). You can change the name or location of the SQLite database file by modifying this setting.

  • When connecting to other databases extra connection parameters will be required, let's take an example of PostgreSQL

      DATABASES = {
        'default': {
            'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.postgresql',
            'NAME': 'database_name',
            'USER': 'database_user',
            'PASSWORD': 'database_password',
            'HOST': '',
            'PORT': '5432',

Django Migrations

Whenever changes are made to the models in our Django project, we need to execute two commands: makemigrations and migrate.

  • makemigrations generates SQL commands for both preinstalled apps and newly created app models that are added to the installed apps.

On the other hand, migrate applies these SQL commands to the database, making the necessary changes.

#create new database migration files
Python makemigrations
 #this create table in the database
Python migrate

Crud operation from Admin interface

For this , First I need to register my model in

from django.contrib import admin
from .models import Post

After you register this , then you can do CRUD operation from Django admin interface.

While Django's admin interface provides a user-friendly way to interact with data, the Django shell offers a powerful command-line interface to manage your models and database.

Performing various crud operation from shell

To access the Django shell, open your terminal or command prompt, navigate to your Django project directory, and run the following command:

python shell

This command open shell terminal where you can perform data operations.

  1. Creating Records

     >>>> new_post = Post(
              title = "BitsNotion",  
              description = "Post Description",
     >>> data to database
  2. Reading Records

    To retrieve record from Post model .We can perform various operations.

    Retrieve all data

     all_posts = Post.objects.all()

    Retrieve a specific post by its primary key (id)

     post = Post.objects.get(id=1)

    Filter posts based on specific criteria (e.g., title)

     query_set = Post.objects.filter(title='BitsNotion')
  3. Updating Records

     # Retrieve the post you want to update
     post = Post.objects.get(id=1)
     post.title = 'Updated Post Title'
  4. Deleting Records

     # Retrieve the post you want to delete
     post = Post.objects.get(id=1)
     post.delete()#delete your post

Various model fields list

Field TypeTitleDescription
AutoFieldAuto-Incrementing Primary KeyAn automatically incrementing field that serves as the primary key for each record. It assigns a unique integer value to each new record automatically.
BigIntegerField64-bit Integer FieldA field that stores large numerical values represented by 64-bit integers. Useful for handling very large numbers.
BooleanFieldTrue/False FieldA field to represent true/false values or boolean choices. It stores True or False values to indicate binary choices.
CharFieldCharacter FieldA field for storing short strings with a fixed maximum length. Commonly used for names, titles, or other short pieces of text.
DateFieldDate FieldA field to store dates without the time component. It can represent dates ranging from 1000-01-01 to 9999-12-31.
DateTimeFieldDate and Time FieldA field to store both dates and time with microsecond precision. It represents dates and times ranging from 1000-01-01 to 9999-12-31.
DecimalFieldDecimal FieldA field for storing decimal numbers with fixed-precision. It is useful for handling financial data or other precise numeric values.
EmailFieldEmail Address FieldA field to store valid email addresses. It validates input to ensure it follows the correct email format.
FileFieldFile Upload FieldA field to upload and store files. It can be used to handle file uploads, such as images, documents, or other files.
FloatFieldFloating-Point Number FieldA field for storing floating-point numbers. It can represent real numbers with decimal fractions, e.g., 3.14.
ImageFieldImage Upload FieldSimilar to FileField, but it is specifically used for uploading and storing image files.
IntegerFieldInteger FieldA field for storing whole numbers without any decimal places. It represents 32-bit signed integers.
TextFieldText FieldA field for storing long text strings with unlimited length. It is useful for storing large pieces of text, such as articles or descriptions.
URLFieldURL FieldA field to store valid URLs. It validates input to ensure it follows the correct URL format.
UUIDFieldUniversally Unique Identifier FieldA field to store universally unique identifiers (UUIDs). UUIDs are 128-bit unique identifiers, often used to ensure uniqueness in distributed systems.